Structure and Development of EASA Part 147 Practical Type Training

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Sofema Online (SOL) takes a look at the structure and development of Practical Training.


Whilst EASA Does NOT specify the use of the Training Needs Analysis (TNA) Process to Develop and serve as a Control for Practical Training it can be considered as “best practice” as it ensures a framework for effective management.

Training Procedures

The organisation shall demonstrate full compliance with 147.A.130(a) with regard to the Training Procedures acceptable to EASA or the competent Authority.

To include the following (All elements shall be defined or referred in Section 2.2 of MTOE)

The internal procedure in use for Training Need Analysis (TNA) process:

» TNA Report compilation
» Type course duration determination

Detailed procedure shall include:

» Full Justification regarding how it is determined that the content, the sequence, and the training methodology of a proposed course will achieve the learning objectives.
» Definition should include understanding and consideration of all important elements required to demonstrate the ability of the training organisation to implement the procedure, (such as the references being used, the qualification, and the allocated responsibilities of staff involved into the process.

The process should also show the requirement for final approval and continuing oversight of Quality Assurance (QA).

Additionally, QA should also be able to demonstrate, a documented process for the oversight of the periodic review and documentation including the TNA revision process.



Practical Tasks are divided into two types P1 and P2


1. These are the tasks that are to be performed during the type training course. All the P1 Tasks are mandatory.

2. These tasks will be conducted by the Type Training Instructor in line with the course curriculum.

3. All Practical Training P1 task items which are not completed during the theoretical section of the type training must be carried forward to be completed during the Practical Training P2.

4. All P1 tasks completed during the theoretical section must be signed off by the Instructor and the carried forward tasks must be completed and signed off by the Practical Trainer.


1. The practical tasks listed under the heading ‘P2 Tasks’ are classified by the importance of a task as per EASA Part 66 guidelines.

2. The Practical Trainer will assist in the completion of the tasks using either an operational aircraft or a long layover aircraft or the component workshop. All P2 tasks should be signed off by the Practical Trainer.

3. P2 task of this structured practical training (SPT) logbook will be evenly distributed over a period of 10 Days.

4. Two assessments will be carried out for the SPT by an approved assessor.

Task classification

Tasks description will be any of the following:

» LOC: Location
» SGH: Service and Ground Handling
» MEL: Minimum Equipment List
» TSE: Trouble Shooting Exercise
» FOT: Functional Operational Test
» R/I: Removal/Installation
» TCD: Technical Discussion at the Aircraft Site

Documents Used

Practical Training Logbook / AMM / TSM / IPC / MEL / EPM

Task Delivery Methodologies and Selection criteria

Task Practicing and Performance (PRF)

The trainee physically performs the task on the aircraft/ aircraft component, or on a Task-trainer:

» A part of the training shall be done via this classical method.
» In particular, it remains an essential step for practicing the use of special tools, or the completion of tasks that may involve human factors or specific difficulties, that require specific access preparation.
» Discuss safety precautions and completion of aircraft documentation.

Task Selection Criteria – Trainee must methodically perform the task to gain the required capability and competencies in order to develop the right level of Knowledge, Skill, and Attitude to perform the maintenance activity.

Demonstration (DEM)

By this term, it is understood that the trainee will not perform himself the task, but will visualize a task made by the instructor or another trainee.

However as much as possible the Trainer will not perform the tasks himself but rather let the trainees alternatively take part in the performance of the task or sub-tasks.

This will allow the overall trainee to witness errors made by the performer and commented by the instructor.

Task Selection Criteria – A Demonstration task can be chosen if it is not feasible to conduct this task due to the number of manpower and tooling required, however, it is important that the trainee be familiar with the task.

Technical Discussion at the location – Basic Simulation (TCD)

Technical Discussion or Basic Simulation: The task is almost performed except that it does not result in the physical removal/installation of components nor the alteration or activation / deactivation of the A/C systems.

It involves physical access to the component location, the visualisation of the tooling, and the reading of the aircraft maintenance documentation. It also includes the real tooling and access equipment put in place on the component and being manipulated.

Task Selection Criteria – At times when the parts of the task can be conducted practically but certain parts cannot be performed, or if the task has a test whose results can be discussed and if it is not feasible to carry out.

Computer-Based 3D Simulation (3D SIM)

Technical discussion with a 3D simulation of the task. Ideal for Removal/Installation of complex and time-consuming task.

Aircraft maintenance documentation will be used throughout the process and the component will be physically accessed to discuss component location and the visualisation of the tooling.

Task Selection Criteria – In aircraft where the manufacturer has provided 3D simulator software.

These can be used to demonstrate certain tasks such as complex and time-consuming task.

Overall Objectives of Structured Practical Training (SPT)

At end of SPT Trainees will be able to:

» Be familiar with frequently occurring defects
» Identify special tools required for specific tasks
» Carry out Daily and Pre Flight Inspection
» Carry-out Servicing
» Carry out Inspection
» Carry out Removal / installation
» Carry out Troubleshooting
» Carry out Software loading
» Carry out System Tests
» Carry out deactivation and reactivation procedures

Task Selection Criteria for Structured Practical Training (SPT):

As per PART 66, the tasks should be selected on the basis of their frequency, complexity, variety, safety, criticality, novelty, etc.

The selected tasks should cover all the chapters described in the table contained in Appendix III to PART 66.

Following should consider for task selection:

» Human factor and Safety
» Frequently reoccurring faults
» Complexity of the task
» Criticality of the task or system function.
» Specific Task/Fault for aircraft/engine type
» Frequently repeating task
» Tasks required special tools/ special procedure
» Specific location
» Specific description and operation of a system
» New technology or EK configuration-specific task
Task Verification Procedure to Ensure no Important Tasks are Omitted.

The Initial task selection should be performed by an appropriately qualified type rated assessor duly authorised by QA.

He/she shall be responsible to select all the required tasks of relevant aircraft in the categories B1 and B2 as per the criteria above.

These tasks shall be further rechecked by another appropriately qualified type rated assessor to ensure these tasks meet the criteria and no important tasks are left out.

Both the assessors shall record their work in the logbook amendment form P2 Practical Training Schedule and Hours.

Example shown for ATA 21: Air Conditioning


After completion of the structured practical training the student will be able to:

» Perform maintenance tasks as per approved documentation
» Perform Inspection schedules according to company requirements
» Identify and observe safety-related issues while working on tasks
» Identify components and perform inspections as required
» Safely engage Ground Conditioning air
» Perform deactivation of FCV and Inlet Door actuators
» Be familiar with current air conditioning system failures

EASA Part 147 – Maintenance Training Organisation Exposition (Example Content)


An aircraft type course is prepared in accordance with and as an outcome of a Training Needs Analysis (TNA).

The TNA approach is based on systems or subsystems or components, however, tasks or groups of tasks are also considered where appropriate.

Additionally, the aircraft design, its maintenance needs, and the types of operation are considered. When the TNA is based on tasks, the TNA includes a competency analysis.

To determine the course content the TNA is related (as a minimum) to the elements and training levels in Part 66 Appendix III that are specific to the aircraft type (and the associated AMCs).

Where the TNA determines it necessary, additional elements are included due to type variations, technological changes, etc.

The type training syllabus is mainly focused on mechanical and electrical aspects for B1 courses, and electrical and avionic aspects for B2.

The type training course duration is justified by the summation of the time taken to correctly address each element, at the correct training level at the outcome of the TNA.

The course duration is compared against the minimum durations noted in Part 66 Appendix III.

All type training courses, including, e.g. differences courses or other training course combinations (such as combined B1/B2 courses), are justified to the Competent Authority by the TNA as described above.

Where appropriate, the content and the duration deriving from the TNA may be supported by an analysis from the Type Certificate holder.

The aircraft type training syllabi reflects the approved standards of the aircraft manufacturers and covers the current requirements.

The syllabi may quote the training duration in training days, training hours, or lessons. These terms are defined in the relevant text in this MTOE and/or syllabi.

For all purposes, a training hour means 60 minutes of teaching and excludes breaks, examinations, revision, preparation, and aircraft visits.

The responsibility of developing/designing a TNA will be assigned to an Instructor appropriately approved for that aircraft type with oversight from the Engineering Type Training Manager.

2.2.1 Syllabus

All aspects of a course are described in its TNA.

A TNA is submitted for each course to the Competent Authority for approval.

Appendix 4 lists the approved course TNA’s.

2.2.2 Training Manuals

Training Manuals are prepared in accordance with Part 66.

They are accurate and current at the time of issue. No amendment service is provided and relevant material is identified as “For training purposes only”.

The Instructor will ensure that he/she uses the latest revision of the training manual.

Next Steps

Sofema Aviation Services and Sofema Online provide Classroom, Webinar, and Online training related to regulatory compliance with EASA Part 147 & EASA Part 66. For additional details please visit our websites or email

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