Blog posts tagged in HF

SofemaOnline - Case Study Eastern Airlines

Introduction

For many people in aviation today the events of Eastern Airlines Flight 855 are long forgotten, however, the memory does live on and on this fateful day many lives were saved thanks to the calm and professional approach of the pilots.

What happened?

On May 5, 1983, a Lockheed L-1011 TriStar, registration N334EA, en route from Miami International Airport to Nassau International Airport, experienced the loss of all three engines near Miami, Florida. Following a decision to return to Miami.

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SofemaOnline looks at language-related issues and exposure-related specifically to the Aviation Maintenance environment

Introduction

Communication effectiveness and efficiency serve as an important pillar to maintain safety and aviation professionals have a responsibility to engage with a fully understandable communication process.

Communication enables people, processes, structure, and systems, to interact simultaneously and effectively. Communication skills not only include verbal behavior and effective use of the appropriate words but include the need to ensure appropriate tone of voice, body expression, as well as other gestures.

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Sofemaonline.com offers online training including EASA Part 66 Module 9 Human Factors compliant training for third country workshop personnel

Introduction

It is important to ensure that all employees are aware of how to act in the event of a workplace emergency. Whilst not every person needs to be qualified as a fire marshal or Emergency First Aid Responder, it is important that a number of employees are "highly trained" and all employees have an general awareness of all potential emergencies and how to proceed.

All employees should understand what constitutes an emergency or disaster at the workplace?

Additionally, to understand:

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Sofemaonline.com offers online training including EASA Part 66 Module 9 Human Factors compliant training for third country workshop personnel

Introduction

Aircraft certifications are made within the framework of an organisation approval, part of which lays on the organisation the need to ensure currency – but it is not a one-sided story because the certifying staff also has a responsibility to remain current - means up to date with developments and changes to either the regulations or approved data which is driving the task.

Aircraft maintenance technicians typically undertake a significant basic training program which provides them with the knowledge and competence to enable them to become aircraft mechanics. 

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Sofemaonline.com offers online training including EASA Part 66 Module 9 Human Factors compliant training for third country workshop personnel 

Introduction to Work Logging and Recording 

Maybe the description belies the importance of the subject however the reality is that correctly recording work, which has been carried out, as well as how we document and hand over any outstanding tasks is of significant importance and creates multiple human factor exposures.

Inadequate recording of work carried out has been cited as a contributing factor in several incidents.

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Every Picture Tells a Story!

Sure, but sometimes there is a story behind the story.

Turns out the Captain had a very hairy landing (maybe wake turbulence from a departing aircraft) but in any event, he believed it was normal. 

Basically the Cowl of this huge 55,000 pounds thrust engine “kissed” the ground.

Unfortunately, the Engineer missed this during his walk around!

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Sofemaonline.com offers online training including EASA Part 66 Module 9 Human Factors compliant training for third country workshop personnel 

What do we Mean by Complex Systems?

Essentially all large modern aircraft can be described as complex systems. But this is just the beginning because integrated organisations are also in themselves complicated systems and the combination of both together creates multiple exposures within the realm of Human Factor related errors, incidents & accidents.

Engaging with Complex Systems

Within the aircraft environment, a simple system should cause no problems in itself, with engineers being trained and possessing the appropriate competence to fully engage with the challenge of addressing the various problems.

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Sofemaonline.com offers online training including EASA Part 66 Module 9 Human Factors compliant training for third country workshop personnel

What are Repetitive Tasks?

When we talk about “repetitive tasks”, we mean tasks which are performed several times during a shift (Daily check or Transit Check for example). There are more mundane tasks, for example, checking aircraft life jackets. What happens physiologically is that as a person becomes complacent his alertness decreases along with his performance.

Repetitive tasks are essential tasks which require a low level of mental acuity. Such tasks can quickly become tedious and therefore induce a low level of arousal within the worker.

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Sofemaonline.com offers online training including EASA Part 66 Module 9 Human Factors compliant training for third country workshop personnel

Introduction

Stress is often associated with anxiety, fear, fatigue, and hostility. It can also arise as a result of feelings of inadequacy, where we may feel we don't have the appropriate experience, knowledge, or capability to complete our allocated tasks.

All these feelings can have a direct and negative impact on performance. In fact, our performance will generally improve with the onset of stress however it will then peak and begin to degrade rapidly as stress levels exceed our abilities to handle the situation.

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Sofemaonline.com offers online training including EASA Part 66 Module 9 Human Factors compliant training for third country workshop personnel 

Fitness and Health

Aircraft maintenance certifying staff and technicians often undertake work which is physically demanding as well as being called on to work in multiple environments include cold and heat, wind and rain.

Fitness and health can have a significant effect upon job performance (both physical and cognitive). Day to day fitness can be reduced through illness (physical or mental) or injury.

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Sofemaonline.com offers online training including EASA Part 66 Module 9 Human Factors compliant training for third country workshop personnel

Maintenance Management Focus

Supervisors and Managers have an important role to ensuring that safety and safe working practices is a top down leadership “led” objective which is instilled in mechanics and certifying staff and visible throughout the business.

Considering Supervisors

The supervisor’s role is somewhat different to the manager role as the supervisor position requires a more “hands on” approach, to the potential for errors to be made by technicians and certifying staff.

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Sofemaonline.com offers online training including EASA Part 66 Module 9 Human Factors compliant training for third country workshop personnel

What do we mean by Team?

When we’re in the presence of others, people are more physiologically aroused and energized, and dominant behaviours are strengthened. This phenomenon is called social facilitation. 

Within the maintenance Environment we need to work together as a team to enable the accomplishment of complex tasks – however there is a difference between working as a team and working as individuals within a team.

Complex systems need ‘teams’ to get task done - Teams have to be conceived, planned and implemented with care.

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Sofemaonline.com offers online training including EASA Part 66 Module 9 Human Factors compliant training for third country workshop personnel 

Concerning Safety Culture

Safety culture is how we perceive the combination of attitude, beliefs, perceptions and values and it is considered as part of the organisation culture, sometimes described by the phrase "the way we do things around here".

What do we mean by Safety Culture within an Organisation?

Safety Culture is the way safety is perceived, valued and prioritised within an organisation.

Safety Culture reflects the true commitment to safety at all levels in the organisation.

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Sofemaonline.com offers online training including EASA Part 66 Module 9 Human Factors compliant training for third country workshop personnel 

What is Peer Pressure?

Peer pressure is the pressure we feel to do what our group or peers expect of us. Peer pressure is closely linked to organizational norms and culture.

We consider peers as people who are part of our own social group, so the term "peer pressure" means the influence that peers can have on each other. The term "peer pressure" is not usually used to describe socially desirable behaviours, rather a degree of pressure to conform to the "group norms".

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Sofemaonline.com offers online training including EASA Part 66 Module 9 Human Factors compliant training for third country workshop personnel

What is Motivation?

Motivation can be thought of as a basic human drive that arouses, directs, and sustains all human behaviour.

In general all “Human Behaviour” occurs following a related motivating requirement.

Motivated behaviour could be described as goal directed and purposeful. 

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Sofemaonline.com offers online training including EASA Part 66 Module 9 Human Factors compliant training for third country workshop personnel

Introduction

Social Psychology looks at the interactions as well as the pressure a group places on its individual members.

Individuals are responsible for themselves, their successes and failures. People may also hold others or be held by others as responsible for any action (or inaction). It is usual to find that relationships vary from an environment where groups have very clear and explicit rules that keep people in line to groups where the rules or pressures are more subtle.

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SofemaOnline (www.sofemaonline.com) takes a look at what we understand when we talk about Murphy’s law!

Who & What is Murphy’s Law?

Murphy's Law ("If anything can go wrong, it will") was born out of an event at Edwards Air Force Base USA in 1949.

It was named after Capt. Edward A. Murphy, an engineer working on Air Force Project MX981, An exercise to see how much sudden deceleration a person can stand in a crash.

One day, after finding that a transducer was wired wrong, he cursed the technician responsible and said, "If there is any way to do it wrong, he'll find it.". The contractor's project manager kept a list of "laws" and added this one, which he called Murphy's Law.

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As the technical complexity of aircraft have developed over the last 100 years the nature of interaction with people associated with the maintenance of aircraft began to matter more & more and in fact today human factors is relevant in just about every aspect and element of the maintenance system. 

The use of the term "human factors" in the context of aviation maintenance engineering is relatively new. In fact EASA only started mandating Compulsory HF training from 2005.

Several Landmark aircraft accidents, for example Aloha aircraft in the USA in 1988 and British Airways BAC 1-11 windscreen accident in the UK in June 1990 showed that there was an unacceptable level of exposure to the potential of Maintenance Human Factors MHF.

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The Focus of this blog is to consider the inter-relationship between Maintenance Error Management Systems (MEMS) – (typically using the Boeing Maintenance Error Decision Aid as a primary tool) and Safety Management through Human Factor Learning within the context of a viable Safety Management System.

What is the Purpose of MEMS?

The rationale behind a MEMS System is to identify any situations which may “promote” the potential for error. In addition to facilitate (using the organisational framework) the risk based decision making process which will lead to stronger defences.

Tagged in: HF MEMS Safety SMS
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Driving Safety Management System (SMS) Value from your Aviation Maintenance Error Management System (MEMS).
Throughout our Industry we know that Maintenance Errors cost millions of Euros every year through the need for rework, delays and lost revenue. (To consider also the potential to introduce safety related exposures.)

What is MEDA?

Boeing developed the MEDA process to assist maintenance organisations identify why events occur and how to prevent them in the future.

MEDA provides a process for conducting thorough and consistent investigations, determining the factors that lead to an event and making improvements to reduce the likelihood of future incidents.

Tagged in: Error HF MEDA MEMS SMS
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