Recent blog posts

Sofema Online considers the role of Process Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (PFMEA) in Aviation System Root Cause Analysis.


Human and System errors can have quite significant negative outcomes. Process Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (PFMEA) looks at each process step to identify risks and possible errors from many different sources.

The sources most often considered are:

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Introduction by Sofema Online

Introduction to Bowtie Risk Assessment Methodology

Bowtie is a risk evaluation method that can be used to analyze and demonstrate causal relationships in high-risk scenarios, in addition to enable an understanding of the control scenarios by identifying control measures.

The assessment of the bowtie elements facilitates the identification of the safety and risk priorities. Providing a visual interpretation of how improvements can be enabled and understood throughout the aviation system.

Bowtie is a visual tool that effectively depicts risk providing an opportunity to identify and assess the key safety barriers either in place or lacking between a safety event and an unsafe outcome.

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Steve Bentley CEO of Sofema Group ( considers the common errors that people make when considering Aviation Errors

Lack of Detail of Appreciation Related to the initial assessment of the Event, Issue or Problem

Spending time to analyze the initial problem so that we understand “What” has happened as well as “How” it happened. It is important to perform this analysis before moving onto Root Cause Analysis.

This will not only determine the nature of the problem but will also identify exactly where the problem exists within the system, to understand when it exists. So, it is important to recognize that a well defined Problem Statement drives the entire Root Cause Analysis effort.

Tagged in: Aviation RCA Root Cause
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AETS-Sofema is pleased to offer Embraer ERJ 135/145 (RR AE3007A engine) Engine Ground Run Training

Details of Forthcoming ERJ Engine Run Training Course

Theory and Practical - Shoreham Airport, UK Embraer ERJ 135/145 (RR AE3007A engine) Engine Ground Run Theory and Practical - Shoreham Airport, UK

What Should Take Place During Pre-Start Briefing?

The pre-start briefing should include functions of each crew member in normal operations and emergencies, including evacuation procedures and assembly point.

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Guest Blog Contribution from Carlos Barcia Training Manager AETS-Sofema EASA 147 Approval BG.147.005

Training is the structured approach to enhance someone’s knowledge which often involves the undertaking of specific taught courses (theoretical knowledge) or on the job training (skills) where a person is given the knowledge needed to apply theory into practice. Often it is the combination of both. The EGR training without a doubt should be composed of a combination of those elements. 

However, competency consists of a number of aspects, of which training is only one. Others include skills, knowledge, experience, appreciation, and understanding of the task at hand. It should be noted that training and/or qualifications alone will not necessarily mean that a person is competent.

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Guest Blog Contribution from Carlos Barcia Training Manager AETS-Sofema EASA 147 Approval BG.147.005

How Important is Correct Engine Running Procedures?

The Answer is critically important with the cost of an Engine running into many millions of EUR care and attention, competence & following correct procedures is extremely important.

Regulatory Context - Competence is the key! 

Whilst there are many relevant regulatory aspects for which there must be an awareness by persons controlling EGR operations, there are no specific regulatory requirements which apply to the supervision and control of this specific task.

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Considerations from SofemaOnline ( (Reference also AC 145-10 - Repair Station Training Program)


Whilst EASA facilitates the development of 147 Organisation Approval in Non-EU Countries, the FAA does not certificate part 147 AMTSs outside of the U.S.

Aircraft Maintenance Technician Schools (AMTS)

An AMTS is an educational facility certificated by the FAA to train prospective aircraft mechanics for careers in the airline industry, in aviation maintenance facilities, and in commercial and General Aviation (GA). 14 CFR part 147 specifies requirements for the certification and operation of an AMTS. The regulation includes both the curriculum requirements and the operating rules for all certificated AMTSs. The knowledge, skills, and abilities required of mechanics are considerable and demand high-quality training. Therefore, the FAA requires high standards from the AMTS.

An AMTS may be FAA-certificated for the following ratings:

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SofemaOnline considers the role of Six Sigma in Aircraft OPS & Maintenance

General Terms

Total Quality Management (TQM)

TQM is a comprehensive set of management practices and tools with the primary focus on meeting or exceeding customer requirements. The emphasis is on process measurement and controls that seek to involve all employees in process improvement.

ISO 9000

ISO 9000 is a set of standards intended to organize for producing high-quality goods.

Each company that is certified as ISO 9000 is required to ensure they remain compliant with a set of quality standards.

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Sofema Online provides a brief introduction to EASA Part 21 Subpart G Process and Privileges.

An EASA Part 21 Subpart G organization is an organization which has approval to manufacture aircraft parts and appliances in conformity with approved data.

The production organization certifies and releases the product on either Form 52 for a complete aircraft or EASA Form 1 for components.

Production Organisation Approvals (POAs) are managed by EASA in accordance with Subpart G of Regulation (EC) No 748/2012.

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SofemaOnline considers an effective process for measuring the effectiveness of Aviation Training Programs

Introduction to Measuring the Effectiveness of a Training Program

Aviation Organizations develop training programs for a range of reasons:

a) Mandatory Requirement
b) Related to Performance Problems
c) Improvement related to poor work quality and motivation

Aviation Business Training Program Delivery

The organisation develops these goals for the training and then measure the effectiveness of these training in meeting the requirements.

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SofemaOnline takes a look at the facts concerning EPA


FAA Parts Manufacturer Approval (PMA) is a combined design & production approval which does not exist within the EASA system. All design is done by EASA Part 21 Subpart J & All Production (assuming there is approved design data) is done by EASA Part 21 G Organisation.

Note EASA Part 21 Subpart F is for cases (typically part of design development) where there is no production authorisation approval.

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Sofema Aviation Services provides clarification regarding the various terms used to describe the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) rulemaking.

Introduction - Here’s a quick self-check!

Can you explain the difference between a “Decision” and an “Opinion”? (If like many of Sofema delegates you are not so sure, then you are in good company :)

Here we take a look at some of the common terms and explain what are the differences.

Can EASA Interpret EU Law?

EASA is not the competent authority to interpret EU Law. The responsibility to interpret EU Law rests with the judicial system, and ultimately with the European Court of Justice. EASA cannot even provide an 'authentic interpretation' (which is an official interpretation of a statute issued by the statute's legislator). 

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SofemaOnline considers the acceptance of Parts Manufacture Authority (PMA) parts within the European System.

An FAA PMA is the normal approval mechanism for any company that wants to produce and sell aircraft parts, however, is not in possession of a production certificate for a complete aircraft, engine or propeller. In accordance with EASA Decision No. 2007/003/C PMA parts are approved following the issue of the FAA PMA (without the requirement for a separate application).

The European Union (EU) regulations require that EASA issue certificates for the design of parts and of their installation into products subject to those EU regulations. This created a problem because when EASA was formed, several significant EU member states had long-standing agreements to accept FAA-PMA parts from the United States. This made sense for supporting European air carriers who were already using such parts.

Tagged in: Acceptance EASA Parts PMA
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Sofema Aviation Services has the answer!


The management of aircraft technical records whether from an operator’s perspective (Lessee) or representing the aircraft owner (Lessor) is 2 sides of the same story and whilst the operator is mandated to ensure the continuing airworthiness of the aircraft, the lessor is absolutely focused on managing the “asset” to protect their investment.

If you are looking to work either as a tech records specialist with the Airlines or to support the lessor organization – this course will provide a significant understanding of the many obligations, process & procedures which come together to manage an aircraft.

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SofemaOnline takes a look at the ins & outs of the end of lease transitional checklists

Forthcoming Technical Records Training Notification

Aircraft Technical Records Specialist Lessee Management for CAMO & TR Staff – 2 Days, Dubai, UAE  2nd of February & 3rd of February 2020


Anyone who has gone through the “pain” of an aircraft re-delivery will know about the potential for an upset with the potential of a costly failure a distinct possibility, particularly if you do not plan the process correctly. Whilst much of a transition delivery is outside of the lessor’s direct control due to the involvement of external organisations – MRO & Parts Suppliers – Part 21J Design Organisations etc. It is still both possible and advantageous for the Lessor to take all-natural precautions.

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Sofema Aviation Services looks at the best practice associated with Technical Records Redelivery Preparation.

Forthcoming Technical Records Training Notification:

Aircraft Technical Records Specialist Lessee Management for CAMO & TR Staff – 2 Days, Dubai, UAE  2nd of February & 3rd of February 2020

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Presented by SofemaOnline

Do you want to grow RVSM Competence in your organisation? Online or Classroom EASA compliant RVSM training available now!

Concerning Operational Approval

Ref - AMC3 SPA.RVSM.105 RVSM operational approval (ED Decision 2017/009/R)

a. Maintenance programme

The aircraft maintenance programme should include the instructions for continuing airworthiness issued by the type certificate holder in relation to the RVSM operations certification in accordance with AMC1 ACNS.A.GEN.010. 

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Sofema Aviation Services ( takes a look “under the hood” of EASA Compliant Quality Auditing Derived Data. 


Effective Quality Management ensures that the organization's products and services are able to continue to meet internal company, client and all “Regulatory Requirements”.
Quality Assurance is the means by which the quality management process can be focused on providing confidence that all quality requirements will be fulfilled.

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Sofema Online ( takes a look at the process to manage the competency of EASA Part 147 Invigilators.

Introduction – Best Practice Requirements related to Exam Invigilators

Regarding the Nomination of an Invigilator

Firstly let's consider what we mean by Invigilator? - An exam invigilator is typically appointed by the maintenance training organization (MTO) for the purpose of ensuring the correct conduct of a particular examination in accordance with the examination procedures of the EASA Part 147 organization.

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SofemaOnline ( considers criteria related to EASA Part 147 Examiner Competencies

Basic Training - Knowledge Examiners

Specialty Knowledge - Knowledge examiners should meet the same criteria as the theoretical instructor of the concerned modules (i.e. examiner for module 11 meets the criteria of instructor module 11)

Pedagogical Skills - completion of a “Train the examiner course” and

Assessment performed and documented by the Training Organisation’s Examination’s Manager (if himself appropriately qualified as knowledge examiner and in accordance with an MTOE procedure).

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