Recent blog posts

The Top 13 Techniques, Attitudes and Behaviours which may be adopted by effective Trainers – Presented by Sofema Aviation Services www.sassofia.com

1. How to Attract Attention

Being Able to Engage with the students and maintaining interest and attention is very important, this requires familiarity with adult learning behaviours.

2. Keeping Attention

Engaging with a range of techniques which focuses on maintaining the interest of the delegate is important – how to achieve?

3. Avoid Unrelated Theory

Keeping attention means also keeping interest and staying on message is a positive way to ensure this.

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How to deliver Performance Audits?

One example concerns a process or concept which is known as Total Quality Management (TQM), if TQM is effectively embedded within the organisation it can play a significant role and serve as a driving force to improve performance.

As with all effective business processes it requires ownership and a timeline to deliver.

If the organisation system process is to be improved, then that system must be understood in terms of all key elements:

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Industry Steering Committee (ISC) Role

A team composed of delegates from:

The proposed or actual operators

Manufacturers (does not “own” the process)

Regulators - typically chair the process

The activities of the ISC are to essentially follow Advisory Circular AC 121-22A , based on:

Use of ATA MSG 3 methodology to develop the scheduled maintenance program for a given aircraft systems structure and engines.

Tagged in: EASA ISC MPD MRB
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Posted by on in Regulatory

The U.S. government has a bilateral agreement in place with the European Union, rather than EASA.

The U.S./EU Agreement covers more areas than bilateral agreements the U.S. has with other countries.

It is a three tiered agreement.

a) The highest tier is the Executive Agreement, which provides the framework for all cooperation between the U.S. and the EU in the area of aviation safety.
b) The second tier is the Annexes.

- Annex 1 covers airworthiness and environmental certification, and
- Annex 2 covers maintenance.

Tagged in: Agreements EASA EU-USA FAA
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To be approved in accordance with 14 CFR Part 145, pursuant to the terms of this Annex, the AMO shall comply with all of the following Special Conditions:

The AMO shall submit an application in a form and a manner acceptable to the FAA.

a) The application for both initial and renewed FAA certification shall include:

i. A statement demonstrating that the FAA repair station certificate and/or rating is necessary for maintaining or altering U.S.-registered aeronautical products or foreign-registered aeronautical products operated under the provisions of 14 CFR.

Tagged in: 14 CFR AMO FAA ICAO Part 145
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Accountable Directorate:

The aircraft certification directorate with final authority, accountability, and responsibility for type certification programs, the development of airworthiness standards, and development and standardization of technical policy for an assigned product and a specific part of Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR).

Aircraft Certification Office (ACO):

The aircraft certification directorate’s engineering operational element. This office administers and secures compliance with agency regulations, programs, standards, and procedures governing the type design of aircraft, aircraft engines, or propellers. The term “ACO” also refers to the Engine Certification Office (ECO), the Rotorcraft Certification Office (RCO) and the Special Certification Office (SCO), and the Military Certification Office (MCO).

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Objective

That only Maintenance Staff Qualified and Trained to certify CAT II & CAT III systems may return to serviceability following defect rectification.

All Company and Contracted technical personnel working on company aircraft must complete pre-authorisation training. “CAT II/III A” Awareness Course “Read and Sign Training” before working on, or managing, Company aircraft.

NOTE - This does not constitute Release authority for Auto-Land operations.

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SofemaOnline www.sofemaonline.com takes a look at the FAA Training Requirements to comply with AC 120-29A

Initial and Recurrent Maintenance Training

a. Maintenance personnel should be knowledgeable regarding the information contained in this AC and 14 CFR related to any significant aspects of LLM that may pertain to maintenance.

Operator and contract maintenance personnel including mechanics, maintenance controllers, avionics technicians, personnel performing maintenance inspection or quality assurance, or other engineering personnel if applicable, should receive initial and recurrent training as necessary for an effective program.

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Introduction

The Continuous Airworthiness Management Organization “CAMO” is essentially responsible for 4 primary functions - Planning, Technical Records, Engineering, and Reliability. These groups work together to ensure that the Aircraft remain fully compliant with all requirements concerning the aircraft maintenance management and associated oversight.

Within the CAMO the Maintenance Planning, Technical Records, Engineering & Reliability groups work together to ensure that the aircraft remain fully compliant with all requirements concerning the aircraft maintenance management and associated oversight.

Within the CAMO department the Maintenance Planning Group has a range of responsibilities including:

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Introduction

With modern aircraft the basic aircraft provides CAT II/CAT III as inherent functions of the basic design standard of the aircraft.

Therefore, typical related “Autoland” tasks are covered by the respective AMM Task driven from the maintenance program.

Typically, it is not necessary for the introduction of additional or special recommendations for scheduled maintenance tasks.

Never the less, operators are expected to demonstrate compliance with supplemental national requirements whenever applicable.

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Considering the relationship between Aviation Quality and Aviation Safety, together with the relationship between Quality Assurance Auditing and Safety Assurance Auditing in Aviation

Often it is apparent there is some confusion between the specific functions of the two different undertakings namely a quality assurance management system and that of a safety assurance management system.

So consider that Quality is essentially looking at compliance, and Safety is looking at Risk.
In essence Quality Assurance is determining gaps based on non compliance with either the regulatory requirements or organisational requirements.

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SofemaOnline - www.sofemaonline.com takes a look at the rules

Operator Obligations

An Operator must establish procedures and instructions to be used for Low Visibility Take-Off and Category II and III operations.

These procedures must be included in the Operations Manual with approval by the Authority.

The procedures shall contain the duties of flight crew members during taxiing, take-off, approach, flare, landing, roll-out and missed approach as appropriate.

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Background
 
Regulatory approval for Autoland was first given in 1968 with the first CAT III landing taking place in Jan 1969 (Sud Aviation Caravelle).
 
Early adopters of Category III technology include The Hawker Siddeley HS Trident, Boeing B747-200 and Concorde. In 1974, the Airbus A300 was certified for Category III A and in 1983 the Airbus A310 achieved certification followed by the Airbus A300-600 in 1984 which achieved CAT III B.
 
Fail-operational automatic landing was first used for these types of operations, but it was found useful to develop fail-passive capability in order to comply with operational requirements.
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Steve Bentley MD of Sofema Aviation Services www.sassofia.com explains

It is very healthy within the organisation to ensure that the Post Holder is able to deliver Compliance Independently of the QM (CM) - Explain

Consider the Role of the Aviation Quality System within the European Aviation Safety Agency “EASA”

Consider the following role definitions and responsibilities:

- First, that the Accountable Manager is responsible for the Quality System which includes both elements of Quality Control and Quality Assurance;

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Introduction

Aviation Maintenance Error is not only insidious but it also has the potential to lead to incidents and accidents.

Senior Management including the Executive Leadership Team as well as Line Managers should understand the key principles of error management. To ensure a positive learning culture together with the ability to drive change which will minimise exposure and prevent reoccurrence.

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Considering the role of Maintenance Error Decision Aid (MEDA) within the context of an effective Maintenance Error Management System Process.

An Effective MEMS system not only provides a mechanism for conducting thorough and consistent investigations, the outcome of which identifies both the root cause and the contributing causes, related to a specific maintenance event.

Over the last decades we have come to understand that a significant number of very serious flight safety events have been caused by Maintenance Error.

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The Focus of this blog is to consider the inter-relationship between Maintenance Error Management Systems (MEMS) – (typically using the Boeing Maintenance Error Decision Aid as a primary tool) and Safety Management through Human Factor Learning within the context of a viable Safety Management System.

What is the Purpose of MEMS?

The rationale behind a MEMS System is to identify any situations which may “promote” the potential for error. In addition to facilitate (using the organisational framework) the risk based decision making process which will lead to stronger defences.

Tagged in: HF MEMS Safety SMS
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Driving Safety Management System (SMS) Value from your Aviation Maintenance Error Management System (MEMS).
Throughout our Industry we know that Maintenance Errors cost millions of Euros every year through the need for rework, delays and lost revenue. (To consider also the potential to introduce safety related exposures.)

What is MEDA?

Boeing developed the MEDA process to assist maintenance organisations identify why events occur and how to prevent them in the future.

MEDA provides a process for conducting thorough and consistent investigations, determining the factors that lead to an event and making improvements to reduce the likelihood of future incidents.

Tagged in: Error HF MEDA MEMS SMS
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Sofema Aviation Services (www.sassofia.com) considers the challenges to be found during the implementation & delivery of an effective Maintenance Error Management System (MEMS) within an EASA Part 145 Aircraft Maintenance Organisation (AMO)

Tensions between the desire to ensure safety behaviours and the organisations economic objectives (Production versus Protection) deliver real challenges which have a direct bearing on safety culture.

What is an Aviation Maintenance Safety Culture?

Tagged in: AMO EASA MEMS Part 145 Safety
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Introduction

It is considered that errors and violations together form the unreliable part of our human performance. Moreover, that 70-90 percent of current aviation incidents & accidents are due to in some part to “human factors”.

Errors and violations contribute to accidents both directly and by making the consequences of other problems more serious. An accident typically involves several contributing factors, some usually being quite visible and others possibly latent in nature.

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