Recent blog posts

Introduced by Sofema Online (SOL)

26.50 Seats, berths, safety belts, and harnesses - Regulation (EU) 2015/640
Operators of large aeroplanes used in commercial air transport, type certified on or after 1 January 1958, shall ensure that each flight or cabin crew member seat and its restraint system are configured in order to provide an optimum level of protection in an emergency landing whilst allowing the occupant’s necessary functions and facilitating rapid egress.

Last modified on

Sofema Aviation Services (SAS) considers the need and regulatory drivers and understand why are required for existing repairs and changes.


What is the rationale for DTE and DTI of repairs and changes?

Essentially it is related to the possibility of Early Fatigue or Fails safe requirements (pre 25 571 Amdt 45) which did not necessarily provide for timely inspection of critical structure so that damaged or failed components could be dependably identified and repaired or replaced before a hazardous condition developed.

Last modified on

Further Considerations by Sofema Online (SOL)


This regulation has been updated to address the possibility of catastrophic failure of large ageing aeroplanes due to fatigue and corrosion.

Last modified on

» Cost-Effective Practical & Relevant Training

» Ideal to Prepare you Safety Department as part of your Annual ERP Assessment

Sofema Online (SOL) offers an online course equivalent to 2 classroom days covering Practical Crisis Management and Emergency Response Planning  - Please follow the link here: Practical Crisis Management and Emergency Response Planning

Last modified on

Sofema Online (SOL) is pleased to provide an intensive course covering Part SPA - Specific Approvals including PBN, MNPS, RVSM, LVO (AWOPS), ETOPS

Equivalent to 2 Days Classroom training - outstanding value for 112.50 Euros

Multiple Delegate Discounts are available, please see here for course details:

All About Part SPA?

Part SPA was issued as Annex V to Commission Regulation 965/2012. Consisting of Implementing Rules, (IRs), Acceptable Means of Compliance, (AMCs), and Guidance Material, (GMs) Part SPA concerns Specific Approvals typically related to an Air Operators Certificate (Air Carrier) for which an AOC may apply.

Last modified on

Measuring the effectiveness of your company's quality system should be an essential element of the management of your overall quality management system strategy.

The process starts with a review of the organizational QMS policy together with a detailed gap analysis to assess full compliance with all regulatory obligations.

Having established regulatory compliance a further measure for assessing the strength of QMS is to employ a formal “internal” compliance audit process which will be set against an expected organisational standard.

Last modified on

Sofema Online (SOL) considers audit best practices.

With the exception of EASA Part 21 Subpart J Design Organisation Approval which as you will be aware is managed directly by EASA.

The process for all other approvals (Air Carrier – Part 145 / Part M / Part 147 / Part 21 Subpart G POE / ATO) is managed by the Competent Authority.

Essentially works as follows:

Last modified on

Overview by Sofema Online (SOL)

H25.1 General - Ref CS 25.1529 and CS 25.1729.

• Each Aircraft ICAW Must Include Engine & Propeller (Identified as Products)
• For Each required Appliance including – interface
     » Must include ICAW
• Should consider AMC20-20 (Aging Structures)

Last modified on

Considerations Related to EASA Aircraft Flight Manual and Supplements, presented by Sofema Online (SOL)


The International Civil Aviation Organisation's (ICAO) Annex 8 requires that each aircraft be provided with a flight manual, placards, or other document stating the approved limitations within which the aircraft is considered airworthy as defined by the appropriate airworthiness requirements, additional instructions, and information necessary for the safe operation of the aircraft.

An Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM) is part of the type design as required by the type certification basis that the aircraft was originally certificated to.

       »  In some cases the original certification requirements are changed by a Supplemental Type Certificate (STC), mandating the provision of an AFM even though the original type certification basis did not require the provision of an AFM.
       »  All AFMs are identified by a part number like any other critical part of the aircraft.
       »  The primary source for identifying the AFM applicable to a particular aircraft is the Type Certificate Data Sheet (TCDS).

Last modified on

Easy Access Rules for Airworthiness and Environmental Certification (Regulation (EU) No 748/2012)
Sofema Online (SOL) reviews the control process and available data supporting OSD.


The EC published on 27 January 2014 a new requirement in certification - “Operational Suitability Data” (OSD), mandating that aircraft manufacturers, including those building helicopters, submit data EASA considers important for safe operations.

OSD covers the following:

       »  Pilot training,
       »  Maintenance Staff Qualification
       »  Simulator Qualification
       »  The master minimum equipment list (MMEL);
       »  (Possibly other areas, depending on the aircraft’s systems.)

Last modified on

Sofema Online (SOL) considers typical emergency scenarios together with recommended mitigations.

Please do consult with your own operations procedures regarding specific requirements in the event of an emergency situation.

Last modified on

Posted by on in Regulatory

Sofema Online (SOL) considers typical aircraft ground De-Icing /Anti-icing procedures


The necessary inspections and communications can be made beforehand at the gate whereas, at remote/centralised de-icing, the necessary information must be informed to the de-icing crew in another way (e.g. coordinator communication).

The determining of the need for de/anti-icing can be made by other qualified persons, not necessary the de-icing crew.

Last modified on

An aeroplane shall not be dispatched after a de-icing/anti-icing operation until the aeroplane has received the following visual check by a trained and qualified person.

      »  This check shall cover wings, horizontal stabilizer, vertical stabilizer, and fuselage.
       »  This check shall also include any other parts of the aeroplane on which a de-icing/anti-icing treatment was performed according to the requirements identified during the contamination check.
       »  The check shall be performed from points offering sufficient visibility of all prescribed surfaces (e.g. from the de-icer itself or other equipment suitable for gaining access).

Last modified on

Review by Sofema Online (SOL)

Considering the Risks Associated with Aircraft De-Icing / Anti-icing Risk

Risks Associated with De-Icing / Anti-icing Process include

» Risks to the Person

o   Accident using the Equipment

o   Health & Safety to the Person related to the Chemicals Used

Last modified on

SofemaOnline (SOL) looks at Aircraft De-Icing /Anti-Icing Basic Criteria


De-icing Fluids are typically ethylene glycol, or propylene glycol-based fluids containing water, corrosion inhibitors, wetting agents, and dye.

Anti-icing Fluids are similar in composition except that they also contain polymeric thickeners. They are formulated to prevent the formation of unabsorbed frozen contamination for a longer period of time than de-icing fluids; however, the protection is still for a limited period of time. (refer to “Hold Over Time” for details related to useful time availability.)

Last modified on

 Sofema Online (SOL) Considers best-practice behaviours to improve the effectiveness of your Aviation Quality System.

 Introduction: Let’s start by considering the composition of an EASA/GCAA compliant Quality System.

       »  The first comment to make is that there are actually 2 distinct elements as shown below:

           o   Quality Control - In just a few words this measures the organisation's ability to comply with the rules and deliver the production process in an effective way involving process procedures, management, competence, training, and effective culture and behavior.
           o   Quality Assurance - Again, in a nutshell, the QA process is intended to “ensure’ the effectiveness of the QC process by means of independent assessment (means the assessor is not part of the delivery of the product)

Last modified on

Sofema Online (SOL) – considers the various techniques which can be employed to ensure an effective compliance audit

Introduction EASA OPS Regulation 965/2012 

The issue of OPS regulation 965/2012 moved the emphasis of EASA driven organizational systems further in the direction of assessing compliance related to performance. With adjustments to the audit schedule to include additional attention being given to the effectiveness of the business processes.

Last modified on

SofemaOnline (SOL) Considers Aspects of Aircraft Ground Icing & the potential for Performance Degradation.

Introduction - There is no such thing as an insignificant amount of ice.

As we understand any roughness on an aerodynamic surface (caused by ice, snow, or frost) is likely to disrupt the airflow over the lift and control surfaces of an aircraft.

Frost, ice, or snow formations on an aircraft may decrease the lift and alter the stall and handling characteristics. Aircraft may become airborne in ground effect but be unable to climb.

Last modified on

Posted by on in Regulatory

• Soft Skills Training For Aviation Professionals
• Aviation Soft Skills Training for Business Managers

Sofema Online (SOL) - Introducing Aviation Leadership and Management Skills Development Diploma

Last modified on

Posted by on in Regulatory

Sofema Aviation Services (SAS) considers key aspects of the EASA Part 21 Certification Process


Product - shall mean “an aircraft, an engine or a propeller”

Parts - shall mean “any element of a product, as defined by that product's type design”

Appliances - shall mean any “non-installed equipment”, i.e. “any instrument, equipment, mechanism, apparatus, appurtenance, software, or accessory carried on

Last modified on