Recent blog posts

Sofema Online (SOL) considers the typical terms and abbreviations compliant
with ICAO Document 9640 and SAE AS6285E

Abbreviations and Terms

Active frost: Condition when frost is forming. Active frost occurs when
(1) the aircraft surface temperature is at or below the frost point, or
(2) there is water in liquid form (e.g., dew) on the aircraft surface and the surface falls to/or
below 0 °C (frozen dew).

Last modified on

Sofema Online (SOL) considers the requirements to ensure compliance with  - GM1 ATM/ANS.OR.B.005 Management system (ED Decision 2020/008/R)

Definitions and Concept of a Management System

  • ISO 9000 series of standards define a management system as a 'set of interrelated or interacting elements to establish policy and objectives and to achieve those objectives'.
  • Another available definition of management system is the following: ‘The structure, processes and resources needed to establish an organisation's policy and objectives and to achieve those objectives.'
  • Traditionally, separate management systems were developed to address issues such as safety, quality, environment, health and safety, finance, human resources, information technology and data protection. However, it is foreseen that more and more the services providers will establish integrated management systems following the harmonised set of requirements in this Regulation.
Last modified on

Sofema Online (SOL) considers Aircraft Deicing best practices compliant with Aerospace Standard AS6285 REV.E

Strict adherence to these guidelines is crucial for safe aircraft operations.

>> All personnel involved in deicing and anti-icing must be familiar with these procedures and exercise caution during application and post-treatment inspections.

>> Safety and efficiency in operations are the primary objectives of these practices.

Last modified on

Sofema Online (SOL) looks at the role of EASA Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) 2022/1645. Issues with Managing Cybersecurity in Aviation and Best Practices for Cybersecurity Management.


The Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) 2022/1645, adopted on July 14, 2022, provides specific rules for managing information security risks in the aviation sector. This regulation is a supplement to the broader Regulation (EU) 2018/1139, which sets out common rules in civil aviation and establishes the European Union Aviation Safety Agency.

Last modified on

Sofema Online (SOL) considers the process by which to audit ATM/ANS Safety Management Systems - Regulation (EU) 2017/373

Why perform a compliance audit of SMS?

It is necessary to carry out compliance audits to ensure that the organisation remains in compliance with both EASA regulations for example - Regulation (EU) 2017/373 as well as internally documented processes & Procedures – The safety Management System like all other organisational elements should be “independently audited”.

Last modified on

Sofema Online (SOL) considers the importance of ensuring effective aviation standards are identified and met throughout the organizational Air Navigation System (ANS)

Introduction Setting Standards

We use standards as a reference point or benchmark by which we can measure what we are doing to ensure it fully meets expectations

When discussing air navigation, air traffic control, and ensuring compliance with EASA (European Union Aviation Safety Agency) standards, there are several relevant standards and documents to consider. Here's a breakdown:

>> EASA Regulations: EASA has a set of regulations that cover various aspects of aviation, including air operations, aircrew, air traffic management, and air navigation services. The most relevant regulations include:

>> Regulation (EU) 2018/1139: This is the basic regulation that establishes EASA and defines its responsibilities, tasks, and powers.

>> Regulation (EU) No 373/2017: This pertains to air traffic management and air navigation services.

Last modified on

Sofema Online takes a deep dive into the business process of Aircraft Leasing and considers various best practices which can be used to minimize exposure.

Aircraft leasing is a strategic option for airlines seeking flexibility and financial efficiency.

> By understanding lease types, conducting thorough due diligence, negotiating favorable terms, implementing risk management strategies, maintaining open communication, and preparing for lease return, you can minimize exposure and maximize the benefits of aircraft leasing.

> Equip yourself with the knowledge and resources to navigate the intricacies of aircraft leasing, ensuring a smooth and profitable journey in the skies.

Last modified on

Sofema Online (SOL) considers the proposed action to improve aviation safety by making System Safety Assessment (SSA) Certification requirements more comprehensive and consistent.

Details of Proposed Change

The FAA proposes revised and new safety standards to reduce the likelihood of potentially catastrophic risks due to latent failures in critical systems.

>> The standards would require the elimination of such risks as far as practical. When it is not practical to eliminate such a risk, the standards would require the reduction and management of any remaining risk.
>> The proposed standards would also improve the likelihood that operators discover latent failures and address them before they become an unsafe condition, rather than discovering them after they occur and the FAA addressing them with airworthiness directives (ADs).

Last modified on

Sofema Online (SOL) considers Aircraft de-icing and anti-icing critical procedures in aviation safety, particularly in regions experiencing cold weather and icy conditions.

The process of aircraft de-icing and anti-icing is a complex but essential aspect of aviation safety, especially in colder climates. The emphasis on thorough training and strict adherence to standards ensures that these procedures are carried out effectively, efficiently, and safely, thereby maintaining the highest levels of safety in the aviation industry.

Last modified on

Posted by on in Regulatory

Sofema Online (SOL) looks at the role of O&SHA as part of the Aircraft Certification Program

Introduction Evaluating an Operating and Support Hazard Analysis

The O&SHA identifies hazards/risks occurring during the use of the system. It encompasses operating the system (primarily procedural aspects) and the support functions (e.g., maintenance, servicing, overhaul, facilities, equipment, training) that go along with operating the system.

Last modified on

Sofema Online (SAS) considers key aspects of EASA Part 147 Practical Training

Practical Considerations TNA

For the purpose of identifying the specific elements constituting the training course, it is acceptable to use a filtering method based on criteria such as:

>> Frequency of the task;

>> Human factor issues associated to the task;

Last modified on

Sofema Online (SOL) considers a brief summary of what each element of the required Safety Management System will be documented within the Maintenance Organisation MOE.

Introduction – Consider the following elements (required)

>> 3.1 Hazard identification and safety risk management schemes
>> 3.2 Internal safety reporting and investigations
>> 3.3 Safety action planning
>> 3.4 Safety performance monitoring
>> 3.5 Change management
>> 3.6 Safety training (including human factors) and promotion
>> 3.7 Immediate safety action and coordination with the operator’s emergency response plan (ERP)

Last modified on

Sofema Online (SOL) reviews the Safety Precautions and Best Practices including preparation and cleaning related to the inspection of aviation composite during maintenance checks.


Maintaining aviation composites involves thorough inspections and approved repairs when needed to ensure the structural integrity of the aircraft.

Inspection of aircraft composite materials should be performed with utmost care, strictly following safety precautions and adhering to best practices. This will ensure the aircraft's structural integrity, guaranteeing the safety of its operations.

Last modified on

Sofema Online (SOL) considers the fundamentals to provide a practical hands-on session to build process confidence and develop competence.


In this practical hands-on session, we will focus on assessing the serviceability of composite materials using an aviation composite tap testing hammer. The tap testing method allows us to detect and evaluate such damage by analyzing the acoustic response of the composite material. Let's dive into the step-by-step procedure.

Last modified on

Sofema Online (SOL) considers the key aspects of the CCA process

Common Cause Analysis

Common Cause Analysis (CCA) describes the method used to identify the potential for common-cause failures (CCFs) within a system, where multiple components fail simultaneously due to a single event or shared cause.

In the context of certification, a comprehensive CCA is crucial. Regulatory bodies require a systematic approach to identifying and mitigating safety risks, including CCFs. Therefore, demonstrating a rigorous CCA is often a requirement for certification of an aviation flight control system

Last modified on

Sofema Online (SOL) considers the challenges related to the following damage of composite material

>> Barely Visible Damage (BVD)
>> and Externally Non-Visible Damage (NVD).


Composite materials typically do not don’t show damage in the same way metals do. Additionally, composites are susceptible to hidden cracks and defects that may occur during manufacturing or service.

Last modified on

Sofema Online (SOL) considers core terms and definitions familiar within EASA European Aviation Domains.

Aviation Cybersecurity: The protection of aviation systems, networks, and data from unauthorized access, disruption, or modification.

Cybersecurity Incident: Any unauthorized or malicious activity that poses a threat to the confidentiality, integrity, or availability of aviation systems and data.

Cyber Threat Intelligence (CTI): Information about potential or current attacks that threaten an organization. CTI in the aviation industry often includes threats to aviation security systems and infrastructure.

Last modified on

Sofema Online (SOL) considers the major challenges related to the need to address Cyber Security.

Aviation Cyber Security Strategy Introduction

The civil aviation sector is increasingly reliant on the availability of information and communications technology systems, as well as on the integrity and confidentiality of data.

The threat posed by possible cyber incidents to civil aviation is continuously evolving, with threat actors focusing on malicious intents, disruptions of business continuity and the theft of information for political, financial or other motivations.

Last modified on

Sofema Online (SOL) considers the requirements introduced following the release of Annex VI to ED Decision 2023/010/R ‘AMC and GM to Part-145 — Issue 2, Amendment 6’


According to EASA  - The current European aviation safety regulatory framework contains a series of requirements which are aimed at reducing the likelihood of an accident happening.

Last modified on

Sofema Online (SOL) considers the use of the ICAO 5 x 5 Matrix as a Risk Assessment Tool.


ICAO 5 x 5 Risk Assessment is a widely used risk assessment methodology in the aviation industry. It involves the assessment of the likelihood and severity of a potential risk and assigning a score to each based on a five-point scale. The scores are then multiplied to give an overall risk score.

Last modified on