Blog posts tagged in Certification

Sofema Online (SOL) considers the proposed action to improve aviation safety by making System Safety Assessment (SSA) Certification requirements more comprehensive and consistent.

Details of Proposed Change

The FAA proposes revised and new safety standards to reduce the likelihood of potentially catastrophic risks due to latent failures in critical systems.

>> The standards would require the elimination of such risks as far as practical. When it is not practical to eliminate such a risk, the standards would require the reduction and management of any remaining risk.
>> The proposed standards would also improve the likelihood that operators discover latent failures and address them before they become an unsafe condition, rather than discovering them after they occur and the FAA addressing them with airworthiness directives (ADs).

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Sofema Online (SOL) considers typical auditing elements across multiple business areas and elements. The following issues and challenges are considered for each element.

>> Related to the effectiveness of ensuring EASA compliance as per EASA and ICAO requirements, certified aerodromes shall demonstrate and continually monitor compliance with the requirements through audits and inspections.

Ensuring Best Practices related to EASA-compliant Auditing and Oversight of European airports.

EASA-compliant auditing and oversight are multi-faceted processes that require a comprehensive approach. Regular audits, continuous training, and a proactive approach to safety and compliance are essential for ensuring effective and compliant aerodrome operations in Europe.

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Sofema Online (SOL) reviews the CS 25 system separation requirements.

Introduction EWIS Certification Requirements

(a) Each EWIS must be designed and installed with adequate physical separation from other EWIS and aeroplane systems so that an EWIS component failure will not create a hazardous condition.

>> Adequate physical separation must be achieved by separation distance or by a barrier that provides protection equivalent to that separation distance.

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Posted by on in Regulatory

Sofema Online (SOL) considers the current Cabin Divider and Soft Furnishing landscape within Commercial Aircraft.

Soft furnishings must embrace flame-retardant fabrics throughout the cabin, including seat covers, carpets, curtains, and wall coverings.

>> Before the issue of any certification, the testing must comply with FAR/CS 25.853 regulation,
>> Curtain fabric is required to be wear-resistant, stain-resistant, non-toxic, and lightweight.

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Sofema Online (SOL) considers the role of Certification Maintenance.

Discuss the History of Certification Maintenance Requirements (CMR) related to FAA and EASA type certification of aircraft, and to consider the methodology and challenges related System Safety Assessment Process.


The Certification Maintenance Requirements (CMR) are regulations established by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in the United States and the European Union Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) in Europe.

The concept of CMRs evolved over time to ensure that certified aircraft maintain their airworthiness throughout their operational life.

The European Union Aviation Safety Agency (formerly the Joint Aviation Authorities) was established in 2002 to harmonize aviation regulations across Europe. EASA adopted the CMR concept as part of its certification process.

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Sofema Online (SOL) looks at a number of developing relationships in the field of aviation certification & maintenance.


Bilateral agreements and arrangements allow the airworthiness certification of civil aeronautical products to be shared between two countries.

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Sofema Aviation Services (SAS) considers the route to FAA certificate of UAS equipment.

Introduction - Certification for Advanced Operations Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS)

What is Airworthiness?

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Overview by Sofema Online (SOL)

Introduction – TIPs provide specific procedures related to the following:

»  Airworthiness certificates and monitoring of civil aeronautical products;

» Environmental certificates and testing of civil aeronautical products;

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Sofema Online (SOL) reviews the applicable material related to EASA Initial Certification.


EASA Part 21 regulates the approval of aircraft design and production organisations and the certification of aircraft Products, Parts and Appliances.

AMC & GM 14/07/2021 AMC & GM to Part 21 — Issue 2, Amendment 13
Reference - Issue 2 (full) originally dated 30/10/2012 (AMC & GM to Part 21 — Issue 2) with 13 amendments.

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Sofema Online (SOL) considers the function of evaluation board and operational suitability data related to FAA & UK CAA Type Certification.

Introduction UK CAA Evaluation Process

The UK CAA system (derived from EASA) includes, under the type certification process, an approval of data that are considered necessary for the safe operation of an aircraft, called the Operational Suitability Data (OSD).

» These data, once approved, are attached to the TC through a reference in the TCDS and owned by the TC holder.

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Posted by on in Regulatory

SofemaOnline (SOL) considers primary aspects of FAA Certification including aircraft & repairs.

Introduction - How Does the FAA Certify Aircraft?

The FAA collaborates with the International Civil Aviation Organization and other civil aviation authorities to maintain and advance the safety of international air transportation.

The Certification Process involves the following:

» A review of any proposed designs and the methods that will be used to show that these designs and the overall airplane complies with FAA regulations;
» Ground tests and flight tests to demonstrate that the airplane operates safely;
» An evaluation of the airplane's required maintenance and operational suitability for introduction of the airplane into service;

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Sofema Online (SOL) looks at the requirements related to compliance with EASA Regulation (EU) No 748/2012 Part 21 Subpart H 21.A.171 Scope.


Airworthiness Certificates are issued in accordance with 21.A.172 Eligibility

       » Any natural or legal person under whose name an aircraft is registered or will be registered in a Member State (‘Member State of registry’), or its representative, shall be eligible as an applicant for an airworthiness certificate for that aircraft under this Subpart. 21.A.173 Classification.

Airworthiness certificates shall be classified as follows:

       » Certificates of airworthiness shall be issued to aircraft which conform to a type certificate that has been issued in accordance with this Annex I (Part 21);
       » Restricted certificates of airworthiness shall be issued to aircraft:

  o   Which conform to a restricted type-certificate that has been issued in accordance with this Annex I (Part 21); or
  o   Which have been shown to the Agency to comply with specific airworthiness specifications ensuring adequate safety. 21.A.174 Application.

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Review by SofemaOnline (SOL) 

Doc 9760 is presented in 5 Parts:

Part I ( Definitions and Abbreviations)
» Part II ( Airworthiness Organization Structure and Responsibilities of State)
» Part III ( State of Registry)
» Part IV ( State of the Operator)
» Part V ( State of Design and Manufacture)

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CAMO Considerations Related to the Issue of EASA Airworthiness Review Certificate (ARC)

Considerations by Sofema Online (SOL)


The issuance of the airworthiness review certificate (ARC) by the airworthiness review staff only certifies that the aircraft is considered airworthy in relation to the scope of the airworthiness review performed and the fact that the airworthiness review staff are not aware of instances of non-compliance which endanger flight safety. Furthermore, it only certifies that the aircraft is considered airworthy at the time of the review.

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Presented by Sofema Online (SOL)

Issued by EASA Competent Authority (CA) 

Reasons Why CA will issue the ARC

» Whenever circumstances reveal the existence of a potential risk to aviation safety

»  When the continuing airworthiness of the aircraft is managed by a CAMO or CAO which has its principal place of business located in a third country

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Considerations provided by Sofema Online (SOL) 

Article 13 - Certification, Oversight & Enforcement

       » To ensure compliance with the CAR’s, the CA will:

o   Assess the applications & issue or renew certificates and receive declarations

o   Perform oversight of

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Agreement was reached in relation to the extension of 145 certification approval between the European Community (European Aviation Safety Agency - EASA) and the USA (Federal Aviation Administration - FAA) and between EASA and Canada (Transport Canada Civil Aviation - TCAA).

Details of the agreements are issued in the form of two separate guidance materials known as Maintenance Annex Guidance and hereinafter referred to as the MAG. 

Maintenance Annex Guidance 

Is sub-divided into three Sections; 

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